One of the first treaties between the Mi’kmaq and the European settlers was negotiated by the Penobscot in Boston on our behalf in 1725. This treaty, between the British, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet, was then ratified by many of the Mi’kmaq and Maliseet villages at Annapolis Royal in 1726. It was the first of what are now known as treaties of peace and friendship with the British Crown in the Maritime Provinces.

The Treaty of 1752 , signed by Jean Baptiste Cope, described as the Chief Sachem of the Mi’kmaq inhabiting the eastern part of Nova Scotia, and Governor Hopson of Nova Scotia, made peace and promised hunting, fishing and trading rights.

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Treaties of Peace and Friendship were made by the Governor of Nova Scotia with Mi’kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy communities in Nova Scotia. These are the same treaties that were upheld and interpreted by the Supreme Court in the Donald Marshall case. They include the right to harvest fish, wildlife, wild fruit and berries to support a moderate livelihood for the treaty beneficiaries. While the Mi’kmaq promised not to molest the British in their settlements, the Mi’kmaq did not cede or give up their land title and other rights.

Belcher’s Proclamation described the British intention to protect the just rights of the Mi’kmaq to their land.

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is a complicated document that reserved large areas of land in North America as Indian hunting grounds and set out a process for cession and purchase of Indian lands.

Link to Nova Scotia’s Mi’kmaq Holdings Resource Guide:  Mi’kmaw Treaties